Top 10 interesting historical facts

  1. The city of Varna was founded as a trading colony in 570 BC under the name Odessos ("city by the water") by Greek sailor-colonists from the Asia Minor city of Miletus on the site of an ancient Thracian settlement. The Slavs gave the city its present name.

  2. In the period between the 12th and 14th century, Varna became a thriving commercial port city, which was often visited by merchant ships from Genoa and later from Venice and Ragusa.

  3. 10 November 1444 - The Battle of Varna - a crusade for the liberation of Christians on the Balkan Peninsula, led by Vladislav III Jagiello and the Hungarian commander Janos Hunyadi (20,000 crusaders), ended in defeat by the strong army of Sultan Murad II (60,000 soldiers).

  4. In 1866, the first railway line was built on Bulgarian land, connecting Varna with the port of the Danube city of Ruse. This was the fastest connection between the Ottoman capital Istanbul and Central Europe on the Danube.

  5. In October 1972, not far from Varna, the world-famous Chalcolithic (Eneolithic) necropolis was discovered. It dates back to 5th - 6th millennium BC consisting of 294 graves. The gold objects alone are over 3000 pcs made of 23.5-carat gold, with a total weight of over 6 kg, which is considered the oldest gold treasure in the world or hundreds of years older than any other found so far.

  6. The most significant monuments related to the formation of Danubian Bulgaria, the creation of the Bulgarian nationality, culture and literature are located in the Shumen region. The first capitals Pliska and Preslav are located there as well as the Madara cult centre, the aul (palace) of Khan Omurtagh and the Shumen fortress.

  7. A stone inscription describes the visit of Tsar Ivan Shishman to the town of Shumen just before the Turkish invasion. This is the earliest mention of the present name of the town.

  8. In 1813, the first civil celebration of the feast of St. Cyril and Methodius was organized in Shumen, where the first "theatre" in the Bulgarian lands was presented. In 1856, the comedy "Mikhal" by Sava Dobroplodni was staged, which historians of the Bulgarian theatre still consider to be its beginning. The authors of the first original Bulgarian drama (D. Voynikov's "Stoyan Voyvoda") and the first Bulgarian novella (V. Drumev's "Misfortunate  Family") were also born in Shumen.

  9. In 1856, one of the first community centres (Archangel Michael) was opened in Shumen. 

  10. In 1850, the first Bulgarian orchestra for "European" music was established in Shumen, and shortly after — the first school choir and orchestra.